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History Bucovina

Bucovina


The Northern part of Bucovina is nowadays a part of the Chernivtsi region of Ukraine. Inhabited by the Romans since ancient times, the territory of Bucovina was a part of the Moldova Principality, being annexed later by Austria in 1775. In 1849 it becomes Duchy of Bucovina, joining later the other Romanian provinces in Great Romania in 15/28 November 1918, and after the Second World War, the northern part was occupied by the USSR, becoming, after its collapse, a part of Ukraine (Chernivtsi region).

Until 1774 we can not speak of Bucovina, because it was a part of the Upper Land of the Country of Moldavia. As a historical reality and territory name Bucovina begins to exist in the Habsburg Empire, persisting for 144 years, between 1774 and 1918. Together with the debut of the Habsburg administration, the name of Bucovina is officially adopted. However, the name is required only gradually, continuing with the usage of the old names: Upper Country / Moldova Country, Plonina, Cordon / Cordun and Arboroasa. (This last name is reaffirmed by a group of Romanian students from Chernivtsy (Ciprian Porumbescu, Zaharia Voronca, Constantin Andreevici Morariu), who founded the company with the same name in 1875.) During the Habsburg administration, all bureaucrats were forced to learn the Romanian Language; in 1793 was introduced the compulsory education in German and Romanian Languages, and in 1875 was established the "University Franz Josef" in Chernivtsi.

The census from 1776 revealed the fact that Bucovina was very little inhabited, the inhabitant number being about 70.000, out of which 85.33 % Romans, 10,66 Slavs and 4% others. In 1918 it became one of the developed regions of the Roman Kingdom. Until 1940-s, in Bucovina were living members of many ethnic groups: German, Hebrew, Armenian, Lipovan, Ukrainians, Poles, and so on, coexisting in harmony with the Romanian majority population. Besides these, there was for a while an important Hungarian minority (Szeklers), located in the Suceava River area. After the persecutions of Szeklers from 1764, thousands of them immigrated to Bucovina (ex Dornesti). In the nineteenth century the Hungarian government decided the colonization of the Hungarian from Bucovina to Hungarian Kingdom, in Vojvodina, because the assimilation of Hungarians was very intense. In 1941 the Hungarians, who still were in Bucovina, have been colonized in the villages from Vojvodina, and after 1945 were colonized in the Tolna County (Hungary).

The Statute of Autonomy in the Empire.

Politically, until 1848, Bucovina had only eight persons, deputies in the Parliament from Vienna; they had equal rights, they participated at debates and the speeches of the other parliamentaries were translated for them into Romanian. On February 13th 1848, submitting a Memorandum in Vienna, a delegation from Bucovina requires more autonomy by joining the crown of Austria and the creation of a Romanian Duchy so that the "king can wear the title of Grand Duke of the Romans." Thus, on March 4th 1849, they get an autonomy status of Bucovina in Austrian Empire, adding to the imperial titles of Franz Josef the title of the Grand Duke of Bucovina.

It was created the Duchy Diet of Bucovina, which meets for the first time on April 6th 1861. In this institution were represented all the minorities, and the Romans held the majority. The Diet President Eudoxiu Hurmuzachi becomes, in this way, the marshal of Bucovina.

Through the Imperial Resolution from 26 August 1861, Bucovina gets the right to have its own flag (colored in blue and red, the colors were arranged vertically, having in the middle the escutcheon of Bucovina), arms (representing the head of Bull), as well as all the rights adjacent to the status of a Duchy of the Austrian Empire.

After the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, the National Council of Bucovina, gathered together on November 28th 1918, decides in the majority the Union with Romania. The majority of votes came from Romans, Germans, Jews and Poles, and the against-votes came only from the ukranian minority.

Romanian troops enter the territory, legalizing the document and undermining the military maneuvers of Ukrainian Galicia. The Union of Bucovina with Romania is thus officially recognized, in 1919, through the Treaty from Saint Germain.

In June 1940, the northern part of Bucovina was occupied by the Soviet Union. In 1941, Romanian forces, allied to the Axis, reconquer the northern Bucovina. But it is reoccupied by the Red Army in 1944 and remaining until today a part of Ukraine. The link between northern Bucovina, now Ukrainian, and its Southern, which remained to Romania, gradually disappears because of the demographic changes caused by the infusion of Slavic-speaking population, decreasing of the Romanian population, remained only in a few compact areas, and generally, caused by the historical vicissitudes, that were faced by this territory


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